概要

 近年、気候変動や災害リスク低減、持続可能な開発といったGEO(地球観測のための政府間会合)の3つのテーマに取り組むため、アジア・オセアニア地域の国々の衛星データに対する要望が増加してきています。その要望に応えるため、AOGEOは、メコン川流域、太平洋島嶼海域、ヒマラヤ山岳地域を優先地域とした新たな横断プロジェクトとしてIntegrated Priority Study(IPS)プロジェクトを開始しました。IPSプロジェクトは、GEOの3つの優先連携分野である持続可能な開発のための2030アジェンダ(SDGs)、パリ協定、災害リスク軽減のための仙台防災枠組みを参照し、2017年にコンセプトの構築を開始し、2018年に京都で開催されたGEOSSアジア太平洋シンポジウムアジア(現AOGEOシンポジウム)での検討を経て、2019年のキャンベラのシンポジウムで開始が宣言されました。
   IPSプロジェクトでは、衛星や機械学習、再解析により生み出された様々なデータセットをメンバー国が無償で提供し、1)AOGEOの既存のタスク間の横断的活動や研究を推進し、2)地域の専門家によるAOGEOの活動への参加を促すとともに、3)AOGEO地域において地球観測データの価値を高めることを目標としています。
 提供されたIPSのデータセットは、豪州地球科学機構が運用するOpen Data Cubeにアップロードされ、AOGEOの調整委員会(Coordination Board)の共同議長による賛同を得ることによって、利用ができます。研究の提案者が調整委員会の共同議長(CB-CC)へ申請書を送付すると、調整委員会の共同議長が随時審査を行い、承認が得られ次第、データセットを管理している豪州地球科学機構が提案者に対してアクセスコード等を提供します。なおデータセットの利用を承認された提案者は、次の年のAOGEOのイベントにおいて、進捗と成果を報告することが義務付けられます。
 申請者向けのより詳細な情報は「IPSプロジェクト参加申請のための手引き」に近日中に掲載予定です。

IPSプロジェクトの3つの優先地域とパイロット地域:

 2017年以降の2年間で、アジア・オセアニア域の地域的な特性を考慮し、メコンデルタ、太平洋島嶼海域、ヒマラヤ山岳地域がIPSの3つの優先地域として同定されました。アジア・オセアニア地域は、世界で最も標高が高い山岳地域(ヒマラヤ)から、幾つかの河川流域(主たる河川の一つがメコン)を経由して、多くの島からなる巨大なオセアニア地域(太平洋島嶼とインド太平洋の海大陸域)までの様々な地域からなります。3つの地域は、GEOの3つの優先連携分野と関連し、自然災害や環境変動による典型的な社会的問題を抱えています。IPSプロジェクトの成果は、アジア・オセアニア地域や、グローバルな他の地域にとり、良い事例を示すことが期待されます。
 IPSプロジェクトの開始にあたって、3つの優先地域のうちのパイロット地域も、メコン流域ではメコンデルタ、太平洋島嶼ではサモア流路、ヒマラヤ山岳ではカンチェンジュンガ地勢と、それぞれ同定されています。これらのパイロット地域はIPSプロジェクトの成果をより表現できる地域として選定されました。このため、現在IPSデータセットとしてリストアップされている全てのデータセットはパイロット地域をカバーしています。

メコン川流域

General: The Mekong river is the great river in the Asia Oceania region, which is the 10th largest river in a world with 4,400km length and 975,000 km2 area of watershed. The Mekong river originates from the Tibetan Plateau and runs through China, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam. The climate of the region has large varieties from glaciated Tibetan Plateau to the hot and humid tropical region, and most of the region is generally governed by the Asia Monsoon climate which has maximum rainfall during summer and less rainfall during winter. The total annual rainfall is measured at Lao to be around 3,000mm. Due to the heavy rainfall amount, total discharge rate in annual average is 15,060 tons/second. The natural resources are rich in forest, lake, wetland, brackish water and Mangrove region, and sustain regional and local societies through agriculture, aquaculture, surface fishery, biodiversity, tourisms, and transportations. Since the beginning of its history, the Mekong river has long been concerned with the human life and the ecosystem in these countries. Productions from natural resources are exported outside, and sustain regional and local economies.

Human activities and climate change are primary causes associated with environmental changes in the Mekong river basin. For example, human activities due to agriculture expansion and many man-made dams could have affected the river discharge and the local ecosystem. Recently due to the increase of anthropogenic impacts and human activities such as man-made dams and deforest, disasters in this region such as floods, droughts, biodiversity changes, coastal erosion have been bigger risks of disaster and environment than a past, and these impacts to society and economy have been increasing year by year. The resultant societal impact may be manifested in various fields of water management, agriculture, flood, energy, health, ecosystem, environmental pollution and transportation. It is therefore very important to perform case studies that characterize such environmental changes and eventually help to develop the operational solution for the benefits of our society.

The utilizations of our Earth Observation data will bring big benefits to provide solutions to these risks and to reduce these impacts to society and economy, and will help establishment of managements of these risks are needed.

Pilot area (Mekong River Delta): The Mekong Delta is the rich rice production area, but due to less river discharge and more use of river sand, sea waters have been more intruding into the delta area than before. The damage of salt soil to rice production is huge, so the environmental monitoring at the delta region by the Earth Observation is quite important. Coastal erosion is another issue in the delta. Due to the river sand use, sediment supply to the coast of the delta becomes less. The monitoring of the erosion of the delta by the Earth Observation is crucial.

太平洋島嶼海域

General: AOGEO will continue to build upon its previous user-engagement activities (e.g. Earth Observation for Pacific workshop, October 2018, Australia) with Pacific Oceania Island States to provide capacity building and the promotion of spatial literacy, champion access to EO data, develop regionally appropriate best-practice EO methods and products that are useful to these communities in addressing climate, environment and livelihood issues.

Pilot area : Samoa passage

ヒマラヤ山岳地域

General: Mountain regions cover about 24% of the earth surface and provide important ecosystem services to almost half of humanity around the world. It is estimated that the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH) ecosystem alone provide goods and services to about 1.5 billion people living in the mountains and it’s downstream. Mountain areas with often difficult terrain and high degree of inaccessibility present a formidable challenge to collect and manage data and information. This Integrated Priority Study will develop a platform for regional collaboration by bringing together all the GEO member organizations and thematic line agencies from the region working on EO and Geospatial technologies. In future the task aims to: 1) Building on these foundations of ICIMOD and its network, ICIMOD can serve as a Himalayan node contributing to the sub-regional implementation of GEOSS with active involvement of the regional member countries and international partnerships; 2) The focal organizations in the GEO member countries in the region will be the main contributors in this initiative. Participation will be sought from the relevant line agencies working in the thematic areas of agriculture, forestry, disasters and climate; and 3) Private sector participation will also be encouraged. ICIMOD will host the initiative within its Regional Program - Mountain Environment Regional Information System (MENRIS). Complimentary contributions will be managed through ongoing initiatives within ICIMOD such as SERVIR for co-hosting workshops/ meetings and development of tools and services.

Pilot area: Kanchenjunga landscape

データセット

Datasets for IPS (as of October 25th, 2019)

http://aogeo-ips.s3-website-ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com/

お問い合わせ

GEO Secretariat to support AOGEO and IPS
Wenbo Chu (wenbo at geosec.org)

Co-Chairs in charge of IPS and IPS pilots.
Yong-Seung Kim (overall)
Kentaro Ando (Mekong)
Andy Steven (Pacific Island)
David Hudson (Data access)